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'These Cavalries'
Maps of fallen kingdom shed light on Atlantic Slave Trade: Weak Media Entry in the Greatest Lie Sweepstakes
Another link from Wrath
Lynn Lockhart
Sun, Jun 30, 1:27 PM (3 days ago)
What's missing from this story.....Arabs! Miraculously, they do mention South America and the Caribbean.
I think these types of articles are written to pad the "publications" section of grad students' resumes.
It's funny that they consider Oyo a "state" when it seems like more of a raiding operation, they don't mention any administrative activities. 128k slaves but they don't give the time period. Amateur work, can't believe people get paid for this.
Maps of fallen kingdom shed light on Atlantic slave trade
"Those who boarded slave ships from the Bight of Benin, or the Slave Coast of Africa, lost more than their homes—they lost their identities. New maps of a former kingdom made by a University of Colorado Boulder professor, though, may help shed some light on the centuries-old question of where they came from.
"These 21 maps, including one that is animated, are the first of their kind to give boundaries to the kingdom of Oyo—which was located in present-day southwestern Nigeria, parts of Benin and Togo—right around the time of the kingdom's collapse...
"At its peak, the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo was one of the largest and most influential West African states. It was established in roughly the 13th century, and is best known for its cavalries that would patrol the forested savannas. The kingdom had a dark side, though, that made it infamous and ultimately led in part to its demise: its role in the African slave trade."
Plantation America Perspective
Lynn, Wrath of Gnon, thank you.
Ironically, at the same time these "cavalries" were patrolling the forested savannahs for African slaves, in Virginia, English cavalry troopers were patrolling the forested river lands of The Old Dominion for runaway European slaves.
Roughly speaking, from the advent of Islam, the world's most total slave matrix, in which every person is a slave to somebody or some divinity, 80 million Africans were abducted in Africa [mostly by Africans] and sold into bondage. This is an upper estimate. One example that can be found in America in Chains, is of a Nigerian prince paying for his pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina by marching 14,000 slave girls across the Sahara and selling them in Cairo. In some years 7,000 African men would be castrated in Bagdad alone.
From roughly A.D. 700 to 1900, when European Imperialists [including such mythic heroes as Tarzan of the Apes and Solomon Kane] shut down Arab slaving operations in Africa, an estimated 90 million African animists were sold to Islamic masters, including Berbers, Arabs, Turks and Africans under Arab influence. When a new military package is offered by a conquering supra-national elite to local elites the locals typically adopt the religion of the invaders as a kind of operating system. Just as the Indo-European sky gods were adopted in the Middle east and Europe along with the horse and the war chariot circa 2000 B.C., The House of Submission to Allah was adopted along with the Arabian warhorse in Sub-Sahara Africa in the High Middle Ages, establishing such legendary trade centers as Timbukto. The African Sultans and their horse soldiers traded African girls to Arabs for horses and traded gold to Berbers for European girls, a triangular pimp network that lasted for 700 years and devoured about a million fair Christian souls. A lot of pussy changed hands in early Modern Africa.
The following are raw, rough numbers off the top of my head which will be refined in volume 13.
About 10 million African animists were sold to Christian slavers between 1450 and 1850.
Of these the primary consumer was Brazil.
The secondary destination of sorrow was Cuba.
The tertiary destination was Haiti, which received about 110 slave ships a year in order to maintain a standing slave population of 500,000. Under French masters Negro slaves could not grow their population, and it had to be kept up to the half million mark by an influx of between 20 and 30 K per year.
A minor destination for Africans was English North America, which, although dozens of times larger than Haiti, ingested a mere 10% of the annual African slave load, as most slaves were European, amounting to a mere quarter million imported African "immigrants" as they were then called and a population which increased to 600,000 over the single hundred year period from the late 1600s through the late 1700s, when large scale slave shipments were brought to the land that would become the United States of America, a land where unfree Africans were favored over free Europeans and were used to displace the sons and grandsons of freed and escaped European slaves.
An estimated 3 million Europeans were sold into English North America from 1609 through 1804. Our understanding of this process has been clouded by the largely voluntary trade in German Indentured Servants from 1805 through the 1850s. Even this later practice resulted in German girls being sold as negresses after being made to take a tan. Compared to 300,000 Africans in the same period this is huge. In one decade of the 1600s as many Irish were sold into English plantations as all Africans sold into North American English plantations were in three centuries. Many of these Irish were shipped to the tropics and died quickly. [2]
Ultimately, the cruelest destination for an African slave was the Middle East, where most Africans were sent in chains and were close to zero of the current population is of African heritage, indicating an almost 100% fatality rate. Indeed, the fatality rate of castrated African men who had their penis and testicles removed was 90%, whereas most Englishmen castrated for use as sex slaves had only their testicles removed.
African slaves among the Berbers had it better, as they were often used as soldiers and guards and torturers of European slaves and some African slave girls rose to be the wives and mothers of sultans.
By far, the cheery destination for an African slave was English North America, where he might be freed after a term of service [1] and even as a slave might be placed in charge of a great man's household as supervisor of "white" servants.
-1. Depending on the province and later state, between 5% and 20% of African Americans lived as free folks and were legally permitted to purchase and own slaves, in some provinces, such as English South Carolina and Spanish Louisiana, even being permitted to purchase and own "white" slaves. For this see So Her Master May Have Her Again, page 139, Her Back Masters.
-2. 'See I Am White' from page 159 of So Her Master May Have Her Again, ‘No Trace of African Descent’ The Enslavement of a German Girl from 1818-43: William Craft, 1-b .
So Her Master May Have Her Again
A History of Runaway White Slaves in Plantation America: Part Two
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