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‘Pretends to Be a Shoemaker'
The Classic Invalidation Advertisement from Plantation America

May 16, 1765

The Pennsylvania Gazette

RUN away from the Subscriber, living in Mount Bethel Township, in Northampton County, on the 17th Day of March last past, a Highland Servant Man, named Donald McDonald, about the Age of 25 Years, about 5 Feet 6 Inches high, of a fresh Complexion, fullfaced, pretty much pitted with the Small pox, has a Scar on the fore Finger of his Left hand, speaks between the Highland and Irish Dialects;

having lived about three Years and an Half in Ireland, and pretends to be a Shoemaker by Trade;

Had on, when he went away, a old blue Broadcloth Coat, stained with Tar, with carved Brass buttons, an Orange coloured Thickset Jacket, with blue Lining, good Buckskin Breeches;

had two Pair of pale blue Stockings, one pair ribbed, with a Darn in the Middle of one of the Stockings, having cut it, with his Leg, last Winter; [1]

it is supposed he will change his Name and Clothes the first Opportunity;

he enquired the Way to Baltimore Town. [2]

Whoever takes up and secures the said Servant, in any of his MajestyGoals, so that his Master may have him again, shall receive Five Pounds Reward, and reasonable Charges, paid by me WILLIAM MILLER.

N.B. All Masters of Vessels, and others are warned on their Peril not to take the said Servant off. [3]


1. His injuries and garments suggest land clearance work, the primary use of rural white slaves, where blacks were used indoors and in working cleared land.

2. This indicates a network of slave master informers to rival 20th century communist nations.

3. Working onboard ships in the Age of Sail is universally recognized as among the most perilous occupations in and out of military service. Yet, something about servitude in Plantation America made serving as a slave sailor preferable to large bodies of men. Donald's tar-stained clothes might indicate previous service as a sailor.

Stillbirth of a Nation: Caucasian Slavery in Plantation America: Part One

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